May 2008 LIP of the Month

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May 2008 LIP of the Month

Early Paleozoic Large Igneous Province of the Central Asia Mobile Belt

A.E. Izokh 1,2, G.V. Polyakov2, R.A. Shelepaev1,2, V.V. Vrublevskii3, V.V. Egorova1,2,  Rudnev S.N.,1,  A.V. Lavrenchuk1,2, E.V. Borodina1, Т. Oyunchimeg1,4

1 Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk, Russia;

2 Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia;

3 Tomsk State University; Tomsk, Russia

4 Institute of Geology and Mineral resources, Ulaanbaator, Mongolia

Contact: A.E. Izokh [izokh@uiggm.nsc.ru]

Most “classic” LIPs are located either on stable cratons or on oceanic crust. However magmatic provinces with many characteristics of LIPs can also be found in fold belts. Such provinces have abundant granitoid batholiths, and associated picritic and layered ultramafic-mafic complexes. One example is the Early Paleozoic LIP of the Central Asia Mobile Belt (CAMB).


Figure 1: Late Cambrian and Early Ordovician layered ultramafic-mafic intrusions, alkaline gabbro, syenite and carbonatite massifs and gabbro-diorite-granites associations in Central Asia (numbers explained in Table 1).

1 – Siberian craton; 2 -5 – terranes: 2 – Proterozoic; 3 – Neoproterozoic –Cambrian; 4 – Cambrian; 5 – Riphean, 6  - Late Cambrian – Silurian; 7 – Late Paleozoic; 8 – Cambro-Ordovician metamorphic complexes HT-LP type; 9 – layered peridotite-gabbro massifs; 10 - alkaline gabbro, syenite and carbonatite; 11 – gabbro-diorite-granites associations; 12 – geological boundaries; 13 – faults    

Table 1: Geochronology of the Cambro-Ordovician layered ultramafic-mafic, alkaline and gabbro-diorite-granite associations in the Central Asia Mobile Belt (CAMB)

N/N

Intrusive

Association

Age, Ma

Method

References

1

2

3

4

5

6

NorthernKuznetsk Alatau

1

Kaigadagsky

Peridotite-pyroxenite-gabbronorite

465±34

Sm-Nd

(rock, Pl, Px)

Podlipsky et al. (2001)

2

Verkhnepetropavlovsky

Alkali gabbro (A-type)

510±9

Sm-Nd

(rock, Ap, Px)

Vrublevsky et al. (2003)

3

Krasnokamensky

Leucomonzodiorite-leucomonzonite-granosyenite (A-type)

503.9±7

U-Pb

Rudnev et al. (2004, 2008); Vladimirov et al. (2002)

4

Malodudetsky

Malodudetsky monzogabbro-monzodiorite+syenite (A-type)

485.0±3

U-Pb

Rudnev et al. (2004, 2008); Vladimirov et al. (2002)

5

Kaidalovsky

498.4±1

U-Pb

Rudnev et al. (2004, 2008); Vladimirov et al. (2002)

6

Udarninsky

495.2±5

U-Pb

Rudnev et al. (2004, 2008); Vladimirov et al. (2002)

Gornaya Shoriya

7

Tebinsky

Tebinsky gabbro-diorite

492±9

U-Pb

Izokh et al. (1995); Vladimirov et al. (1999b)

8

Kolosovsky

485±5

U-Pb

Vladimirov et al. (1999a, 2001)

9

Luzhbinsky

491±9

U-Pb

Izokh et al. (1995); Vladimirov et al. (1999b)

10

Sadrinsky

Sadrinsky gabbro - quartz diorite-granodiorite-granite (I-type)

 

501.8±2,9

U-Pb

Shokal’sky et al. (2000); Babin (2003); Rudnev et al. (2004); Vladimirov et al. (2002)

11

Bazlinsky

505±8

U-Pb

Babin (2003); Rudnev et al. (2004); Vladimirov et al. (2002)

12

Verkhnekondomsky

Verkhnekondomsky monzodiotite-granodiorite-granite

492.9±8.4

U-Pb

Babin (2003); Rudnev et al. (2004); Vladimirov et al. (2002)

Batenevsky range

13

Samson

Gabbro-monzodiorite-syenite-granosyenite (A-type)

502±2

Ar-Ar (Am)

Rudnev S.N.(unpublished data)

Gorny Altai

14

Edelweiss

Pyroxenite-carbonatite

507±3

Ar-Ar (Bt)

VrublevskyV.V. (unpublished data)

15

Dzheganteregsky

Dzheganteregsky gabbro-diorite-tonalite-plagiogranite

509±9.7

U-Pb

Kruk et al. (2005)

Eastern Tuva

16

Kaakhemsky batholite

Zubovsky Gabbro-monzodiorite-granosyenite

512.4±2.1

Ar-Ar (Am)

Rudnev et al. (2004, 2006)

17

Mazhaliksky peridotite-pyroxenite-gabbronorite

484.2±2.3

478±1.4

Ar-Ar (Аm)

U-Pb

Izokh et al. (2002); Borodina et al. (2004)

Sal’nikova et al. (2003)

18

Gabbro

497±1

Ar-Ar (Am)

 

19

Quartz diorite

489±1.9

Ar-Ar (Am)

South-Eastern Tuva (Sangilen)

20

Erzinsky

Gabbro-monzodiorite

491.6±9.5

490±10

U-Pb

Rb-Sr (rock)

Kozakov et al. (1999)

Petrova (2001)

21

Chzhargalandsky

Syenite-granite

489.9±3.1

U-Pb

Kozakov et al. (2001)

22

Bayankol’sky

Gabbro-monzodiorite

496.5±3.6

489±3

476±8

U-Pb

Ar-Ar (Am)

Rb-Sr (rock)

Kozakov et al. (1999)

Izokh et al. (2001)

Petrova (2001)

Eastern Sayan, Southern Pribaikal’e, Eniseisky range

23

Zapevalikhinsky

Nizhnederbinsky dunite-pyroxenite-gabbro

485±10

Sm-Nd

Izokh et al. (1998)

24

Kholtosonsky

Dzhidinsky gabbro-plagiogranite

506±1

U-Pb

Gordienko et al. (2004)

25

Modonkul’sky

504±2

U-Pb

Gordienko et al. (2004)

26

Posolnensky

Quartz diorite-granodiorite-granite

511±9

U-Pb

Vernikovskaya et al. (2004)

27

Derbinsky

Quartz diorite-tonalite-plagiogranite

498±5

U-Pb

Nozhkin et al. (2005)

Priolkhon’e

28

Birkhinsky

Gabbro-monzodiorite

500±4

Ar-Ar (Am)

U-Pb

Udin et al. (2005)

Udin et al. (2005)

29

 

Quartz syenite

495±6

U-Pb

Gladkochub et al. (2008)

30

Ulankharginsky

Syenite-gabbro

485±1.5

U-Pb

Vladimirov et al. (2006); Udin et al. (2006); Khromyh (2006)

Zabaikal’e, Prikhubsugul’e

31

Shildirkheisky

 

496±28

Sm-Nd

Izokh at al. (1998); Vladimirov et al. (1999a)

32

Beltesgolsky

 

480±15

U-Pb

Bognibov et al. (2000)

Western Mongolia

33

Khaierkhansky

Khirgisnursky peridotite-pyroxenite -gabbronorite

511±12

U-Pb

A.E. Izokh .(unpublished data)

34

Daribi range

Monzodiorite

490.4±3.5

U-Pb

Kozakov et al. (2002)

35

Sharatologoisky

Quartz diorite-tonalite-plagiogranite

494±10

U-Pb

Rudnev et al. (2007)

36

Khirgisnursky

Quartz diorite-tonalite-plagiogranite (I-type)

495±2

U-Pb

Kovalenko et al. (2004)

37

Uregnursky

Platinum bearing picrite-basalt volcano-plutonic association

512±6

Ar-Ar(Bt)

Izokh et al. (2007)

38

Beger

Gabbro-monzodiorite

480±15

K-Ar

Izokh et al. (1990)

A large area of mantle plume related magmatism is identified in the CAMB with age from Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician (Yarmoluk et. al., 2002; Izokh et. al., 2005). Geochronological and geochemical data from picritic, gabbroid and alkali basalt associations are used to characterize the plume magmatism of this age. As an example, an Early Cambrian age is determined for the Uregnur picritic volcanic-plutonic complex in Western Mongolia which has economic Au-Pt placers deposits (Fig 1, N 37). Similar Au-Pt placers are found in the Altai-Sayan fold region in several ore districts of Kuznetsk Alatau and Gorniy Shoria. The Fe-Pt mineral association occurs in the Zolotokitatskaya zone of Kuznetsk Alatau. The source rock for the placers is the Ordovician-aged Kaigadatskiy gabbro-pyroxenite-peridotite massif of the Irkutskinsky complex (Fig. 1, N 1). In addition, new Pt-containing placers are identified along the Middle Ters and Big Tuluyul rivers in Maryinsk Taiga. Similar placers occur along the Kaura, Kaurchak, Mrassu, Azart rivers, and  the Tyulenevsky groove in Gorny Shoria. The compositional characteristics of platinum indicate that the placers have a magmatic source, the composition of which is similar to the intrusions of Ural-Alaska type. This discovery of isoferroplatinum placer mineralization represents the first find of this type in the Mongolian Altai. This placer discovery along with data on the Altai-Sayan region allows us to define a single belt of mineralization related to ultramafic-mafic magmatism of Ordovician age. The belt extends from the northern part of Kuznetsk Alatau (Kaigadatsky and Middle Tersky massifs) over Gorny Shoria (Au-ferroplatinum placers along the Lebed and Mrassu rivers), and Gorny Altai up to West Mongolia.


Figure 2: Locations of gold-isoferroplatinum placers in the structures of Altai-Sayan fold region and Western Mongolia. Extracted from tectonic map of S.P.Shokalsky. Black is the Kuznetsk Alatay-Altai platinum-bearing belt. Notes: 1 – Kaigadatsky massif, 2 – Middle Ters massif, 3 – Gorny Shoria placers, 4 – Ureg-Nur area.

A Late Cambrian age is determined for carbonatite associations of Altai (507 Ma, N 14) and Kuznetsk Ala Tau (510 Ma, N 2) (Vrublevskii, 2003). An Early Ordovician age was determined for nepheline gabbroids of the Beltesgol massif in Mongolia (west coast of Hubsugul lake) by the U-Pb method (480±15 Ma, N 32). The Luzhbinsky gabbro-syenite intrusion (N 9) in Gornaya Shoria has a 491 Ma age. The occurrence of alkali and carbonatite associations at the same time as picrite and Uralian-Alaskan-type platinum-bearing intrusions is an indication of plume-sourced magmatism (in early Paleozoic time).

The characteristic feature of this magmatic event is the formation of the different ultramafic-mafic associations during a relatively narrow time range, at ca.500 Ma, which preceded massive granite emplacement and was connected with zoning metamorphism (HT/LP type) (Fig. 1, 3). In some terranes low titanium and low alkali high alumina layered ultrabasic-basic intrusions are similar to island arc high alumina layered peridotite-gabbro associations, on the basis of geological and geochemical features (Izokh et al., 1998). Tebinsky (N 7); Kolosovsky (N 8), Zapevaliha (N 23), Mazhaliksky (N 17), and Shildyrhey (N 31) intrusions represent this type of arc-related magmatism.

In another region differentiated dunite-clinopyroxenite-gabbro intrusions are produced by  fractionation of picritic or picrobasaltic melts with high potassium alkalinity. Similar intrusions were described and dated in some metamorphic core complexes of Central Asia, for example Dariv Range (Western Mongolia) (N 34), Eastern Sayan Range (N 23), Ol'khon Region (N 28,30) (Khain et. al., 1995; Fedorovsky, 1995). Early Ordovician gabbro-monzodiorite, gabbro-diorite and gabbro-syenite intrusions are also present in the CAMB: Kogtakhsky complex in Kuznetsk Ala Tau (N 13) (Krivenko et. al., 1979), Zubovsky complex in Tuva (N 16) (Kovalev, Rogov, 1981), and gabbro-monzodiorite intrusions in Western Mongolia (35,38) (Kravtsev et. al., 1989; Izokh et. al., 1990). Sometimes picritic dykes are present amongst the gabbro-monzodiorite intrusions. This fact is evidence of synchronous existence of picritic and leucobasitic melts (Krivenko, Fominykh, 1982). Investigation of gabbro xenoliths in camptonite dikes of Western Sangilen and modelling provide evidences that the formation of gabbro-monzodiorite associations takes place during differentiation of picritic or basaltic melt in deep-seated magmatic chambers (Egorova et al., 2006). These data are evidence that the volume of basic magma emplaced during the Cambro-Ordovician was several orders greater than that preserved at the present-day erosion level.


Figure 3: LSchematic representation of the crust – upper mantle structure beneath Sangilen Plateau in Early Palaeozoic according to data from peridotite, pyroxenite and gabbroid xenoliths. A -Cambrian volcanogenic - sedimentary rocks; B - Moren complex; C,D - lower crust; E -Pravotarlashkin intrusion; F - gabbroids of Bayankol’sky intrusion; G - monzodiorite of Bayankol’sky intrusion; H, I, J - intermediate magmatic chambers; K - overlaps. 1-5 - xenoliths: 1 - spinel lherzolite, 2 - spinel-garnet clinopyroxenite, 3-5 - gabbroids: 3 - garnet, 4 - with high -Al clinopyroxenes, 5 - with low - Al clinopyroxenes.


Figure 4: Late Cambrian and Early Ordovician (510-470 Ma) granitoid  batholiths in Central Asia (after A.G.Vladimirov et al., 1999)

The widespread occurrence of granitoid batholiths is typical for the Cambrian-Ordovician stage of CAMB (Fig. 4). Also basic dikes are typical for many granitoid intrusions including mingling dikes (Fig. 5) that indicate widespread participation of mantle melts.


Figure 5: Late Basite dikes in Khyargisnur diorite-tonalite-granite intrusion of Western Mongolia (N 36)

The vast scale of granite magmatism, zoned metamorphism (HT/LP type) and various types of mantle-derived magmatism were caused by the arrival of a superplume under Central Asia. Mantle-derived basic magmatism was present at terranes with various thickness and evolutionary histories of the lithosphic mantle: Gorny Altai, Salair, Western Sayan (oceanic lithosphere); Kuznetsk Ala Tau, Gornaja Shoria, Western Mongolia (island arc terrains); Eastern Sayan (island arc and old rifting terrains) and Siberian craton (thick ancient lithosphere mantle). Rocks resulting from crystallization of picritic melts, which are evidence of mantle heating, are found in all of these regions with the exception of the Siberian craton.

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