0 Ma large mafic magmatic events

Printer-friendly versionPrinter-friendly version

1 Columbia River continental flood basalt(C) event Hooper, 1997[1] Parsons et al., 1994[2]

Location: W. North America

Plume head center: ~42 N, 117 W

Size: 164,000 sq. km., 175,000 cu. km.

Age: Mainly 0.0165-0.0145 Ga (continues to present as Yellowstone hotspot)

Rating: A (1v, 2, 3)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) Hooper, 1997[1]; Nevada Rift flows Zoback et al., 1994[3]; Steens Mountain Hooper, 1997[1].

DIKES: CRBG, SSE-S fanning swarm Tolan et al., 1989[4] Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5]; Nevada Rift, NNW trending Zoback et al., 1994[3].

COMMENT: 70 Ma Carmacks Group potassic volcanic rocks of western Canada (63,000 sq. km.) have been proposed as precurser event Johnston et al., 1996[6] (event 9).


2 Afar continental flood basalt(C) event Menzies et al., 1997[7] George et al., 1998[8] Hofmann et al., 1997[9]

Location: Yemen, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Egypt

Plume head center: 12 N, 44 E

Size: 2,000,000 sq. km.

Age: mainly 0.031-0.029 Ga (continues to present as Afar hotspot)

Rating: A (1v, 2)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Ethiopian Mohr and Zanettin, 1988[10]; Yemeni Baker et al., 1996[11]; & southern Ethiopian comprising the Amaro & Gamo, A 45-34 Ma George et al., 1998[8]. Peak eruption in Ethiopia at A 30±1 Ma Baker et al., 1996[11].

DIKES: Ethiopian Mohr and Zanettin, 1988[10]; Red Sea, SE trending, A 24-21 Ma Coleman, 1993[12] Sebai et al., 1991b[13].

COMMENT: Southern Ethiopia basalts may indicate precurser event or a separate (Kenyan) plume George et al., 1998[8].

COMMENT: Perhaps scattered magmatism throughout northern and central Africa can be linked to the Afar plume Ebinger and Sleep, 1998[14].


3 Western and central Europe event Wilson and Patterson, this volume[15]

Location: Western and central Europe

Age: Tertiary-Quaternary

Rating: C (10)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Massif Central; Rhenish Massif; Bohemian Massif; & others Wilson and Patterson, this volume[15].

COMMENT: Magmatism is predominantly alkaline (alkali basalts, basanites, and nephelinites and their differentiates) and minor tholeiites Wilson and Patterson, this volume[15].


4 Northern and central Africa event Burke, 1996[16] Wilson and Guiraud, 1998[17]

Location: Northern and central Africa

Age: Tertiary-Quaternary

Rating: C (10)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Domes and associated volcanic rocks Burke, 1996[16] Wilson and Guiraud, 1998[17]: Kenyan (Samburu) Ebinger et al., 1989[18] George et al., 1998[8] Smith, 1994[19]; Adamawa; Adrar des Iforas; Hoggar (Ahaggar) Wilson and Guiraud, 1998[17] Ait-Hamou et al., 1999[20]; Air; Anti-Atlas; Bayuda; Biu; Dakar; Jebel Mara; Jebel Sawda; Jebel Uweinat; Jos; Haruj; Ih Ezzana; Lake Faguibiné; Mount Cameroon; Ngaoudéré; Tibesti Wilson and Guiraud, 1998[17]; Darfur Dome, Canary Islands, & others Wilson and Guiraud, 1998[17] Franz et al., 1999[21].

COMMENT: Probably represents a cluster of small plume events Burke, 1996[16] Wilson and Guiraud, 1998[17]. Magmatism is predominately alkaline (alkali basalts, basanites, and nephelinites and their differentiates) and minor tholeiites Wilson and Patterson, this volume[15] Wilson and Guiraud, 1998[17] Franz et al., 1999[21]. However, Hoggar is dominated by an early tholeiitic stage Ait-Hamou et al., 1999[20]. Perhaps magmatism linked by lateral mantle flow from the Afar plume Ebinger and Sleep, 1998[14].


5 NAVP (North Atlantic Volcanic Province) continental flood basalt(C) event Saunders et al., 1997[22]

Location: United Kingdom and Greenland

Plume head center: 58 N, 19 W (wrt United Kingdom)

Plume head center: 68 N, 33 W (wrt Greenland)

Size: 1,300,000 sq. km.

Age: mainly 0.062-0.058 Ga Saunders et al., 1997[22] (continues to present as Iceland hotspot)

Rating: A (1v, 2)

UNITED KINGDOM

VOLCANIC ROCKS: lavas associated with BTIP (British Tertiary Igneous Province) central complexes including Antrim plateau basalts Meighan et al., 1988[23] Mussett et al., 1988[24].

DIKES: British Tertiary, SE-ESE trending Speight et al., 1982[25] MacDonald et al., 1988[26] Mussett et al., 1988[24] England, 1988[27] (associated with BTIP central complexes).

SILLS: Faeroe-Shetland sill complex Gibb and Kanaris-Sotiriou, 1988[28].

OTHER INTRUSIONS BTIP (British Tertiary Igneous Province) central complexes Mussett et al., 1988[24] Emeleus et al., 1996[29] Emeleus, 1982[30].

GREENLAND

VOLCANIC ROCKS: East Greenland Saunders et al., 1997[22] Eldholm and Grue, 1994[31] Dickin, 1988[32] White and McKenzie, 1989[33]; Disko Island (West Greenland) Dickin, 1988[32].

DIKES: East Greenland Tertiary, mainly NE trending Nielsen, 1987[34] Myers, 1980[35] Gill et al., 1988[36]; Disko Island (West Greenland) Dickin, 1988[32] Nielsen, 1987[34].

OTHER INTRUSIONS: East Greenland Saunders et al., 1997[22] includes Skaergaard McBirney, 1996[37]; Kap Edvard Holm Bernstein et al., 1996[38]; Kruuse Fjord Myers, 1980[35]; Imilik Myers, 1980[35]; Kap Gustav Holm Myers, 1980[35].

COMMENT: The ca. 95 Ma Alpha Ridge-Queen Elizabeth Islands event (event 12) of n. Canada has been proposed as a precurser to the NAVP event Lawver and Müller, 1994[39].


6 Deccan continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: India & Seychelles

Plume head center: 21 N, 74 E

Size: 600,000 sq. km., 1,800,000 sq. km. (original area), 8,600,000 cu. km. Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40]

Age: 0.066 Ga (continues to present as Réunion hotspot)

Rating: A (1v, 2, 3)

INDIA

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Deccan Traps: Jawahar, Igatpuri, Neral, Thakurwadi, Bhimasankar, Khandala, Bushe, Poladpur, Ambenali, Mahabaleshwar Mahoney, 1988[41] White and McKenzie, 1989[33] A 65.5±0.5 Ma Baksi, 1994[42].

DIKES: Deccan fanning swarm Bhattacharji et al., 1994[43] Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5], comprises: Narmada-Tapti-Son, E-ENE trending; Panvel Flexure (two generations: pre- and post-flexure Dessai and Bertrand, 1995[44]), N-NNE trending; Mount Girnar area, E-ENE trending; & Cambay, N-NW trending.

OTHER INTRUSIONS: Bombay geophysical anomaly Takin, 1966[45]; Mount Girnar intrusion Chandra, 1995[46].

COMMENT: Generally linked to a mantle plume (e.g., White and McKenzie, 1989[33]), but non-plume models also published Sheth, 1999[46a].

SEYCHELLES

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Seychelles White and McKenzie, 1989[33].


7 Maud Rise oceanic flood basalt(O) event Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40]

Location: S. Atlantic Ocean

Size: 200,000 sq. km.; 1,200,000 cu. km.

Age: 0.07 Ga

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Maud Rise, ca. 73 Ma Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40].


8 Sierra Leone Rise oceanic flood basalt(O) event Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40]

Location: Central Atlantic Ocean

Size: 900,000 sq. km.; 2,500,000 cu. km.

Age: 0.07 Ga

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Sierra Leone Rise, ca. 73 Ma Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40].


9 Carmacks oceanic flood basalt(O) event Johnston et al., 1996[6]

Location: Western Canada (N. Cordillera)

Size: 63,000 sq. km.

Age: 0.070 Ga

Rating: B (4v)

BASALTS: Carmacks Group, 72-69 Ma Johnston et al., 1996[6].

COMMENT: Potassic volcanic rocks. Possibly precurser to Yellowstone plume Johnston et al., 1996[6].


10 Madagascar continental flood basalt(C) & oceanic flood basalt(O) event Storey et al., 1997[47]

Location: Madagascar

Plume head center: 24.4 S, 47.3 E

Size: 260,000 sq. km. (continental flood basalt portion only) Storey et al., 1997[47], 1,600,000 sq. km., 4,400,000 cu. km. Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40]

Age: mainly 0.090-0.084 Ga (continues to present as Marion hotspot)

Rating: A (1v, 2, 3)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Madagascar, A 90-84 Ma, A 87.6± 0.6 Ma Storey et al., 1997[47] Storey et al., 1995[48]; Madagascar Ridge Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40]; ? Conrad Rise Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40].

DIKES: Madagascar NNE-WNW fanning swarm Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5] Storey et al., 1997[47]; comprises Ejeda-Bekily nepheline normative basalts, WNW trending, A 84.8±1.3 Ma; Morondava, NW trending; Tamatave, NNE trending.


11 CCCIP (Caribbean-Colombian Cretaceous Igneous Province) oceanic flood basalt(O) event Kerr et al., 1997[49]

Location: Caribbean Basin and islands Curatao, Aruba, ?Trinidad, ?Jamaica, ?Hispanola, ?Cuba, ?Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador Kerr et al., 1997[49]

Size: 1,100,000 sq. km., 4,500,000 cu. km. Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40]

Age: mainly 0.090-0.087 Ga (may continue to present as Galapagos hotspot)

Rating: A (1v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Caribbean oceanic plateau volcanic rocks Kerr et al., 1997[49]; portions accreted onto the western continental margin of Colombia and Ecuador Kerr et al., 1997[49] include: Curaçao; Aruba; ?San Souci basalts, Bath-Dunrobin formation, Gorgona komatiites.

SILLS: Kerr et al., 1997[49].

LAYERED INTRUSION: Bolivar-Rio Frio ultramafic complex.

COMMENT: Ages mainly A 90-87 Ma Kerr et al., 1997[49].


12 Alpha Ridge oceanic flood basalt(O)-Queen Elizabeth Islands continental flood basalt(C) event Embry and Osadetz, 1988[50] Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5]

Location: Northern Canada, Northern Greenland

Plume head center: 82 N, 93 W

Size: 550,000 sq. km.

Age: 0.095 Ga

Rating: A (3)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Alpha Ridge-Queen Elizabeth Islands Embry and Osadetz, 1988[50] including Strand Fiord (A ca. 95 Ma; Tarduno et al., 1998[51]).

DIKES: Fanning swarm Embry and Osadetz, 1988[50] Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5] comprising: Hazen Strait, NE trending; & Lightfoot River, N-NNW trending.

COMMENT: This event has been proposed as a precurser to the NAVP event (no. 5) Lawver and Müller, 1994[39].


13 Wallaby Plateau oceanic flood basalt(O) event Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40]

Location: SE. Indian Ocean

Size: 400,000 sq. km., 1,500,000 cu. km.

Age: 0.096 Ga

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Wallaby Plateau, 96 Ma Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40].


14 Hess Rise event Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40]

Location: WC. North Pacific Ocean

Size: 800,000 sq. km., 9,100,000 cu. km.

Age: 0.10 Ga

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Hess Rise ca. 110 and ca. 100 Ma Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40] Neal et al., 1997[52].

COMMENT: Part of middle Cretaceous superplume event of Larson, 1991[53].


15 Naturaliste Plateau oceanic flood basalt(O) event Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40]

Location: SE. Indian Ocean

Size: 1,200,000 cu. km.

Age: 0.10 Ga

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Naturaliste Plateau, 101 Ma Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40].


16 Hikurangi Plateau oceanic flood basalt(O) event Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40]

Location: SW. South Pacific Ocean

Size: 700,000 sq. km.; 2,700,000 cu. km.

Age: 0.11 Ga

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Hikurangi Plateau Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40] Storey et al., 1999[54] Mortimer and Parkinson, 1996[55].

COMMENT: Age assignment based on possible link with Marie Byrd Land event (no. 17) Storey et al., 1999[54].


17 Marie Byrd Land continental flood basalt(C) event Storey et al., 1999[54]

Location: Antarctica (Marie Byrd Land)

Age: 0.11 Ga (may be linked to Mount Erebus hotspot)

Rating: C (8)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Hikurangi Plateau (see previous event 16) may be related Storey et al., 1999[54].

DIKES: Marie Byrd Land, ESE trending, A 107±5 Ma Storey et al., 1999[54].

COMMENT: Associated with Antarctica-New Zealand rifting Storey et al., 1999[54]. The younger (Cenozoic) phase of (alkaline) mafic magmatism in Marie Byrd Land probably marks a separate mantle plume Storey et al., 1999[54].


18 Kerguelen oceanic flood basalt(O)-Rajmahal continental flood basalt(C) event(s) Kent et al., 1997[56] Mahoney et al., 1995[57] Frey et al., 2000[58]

Location: Indian Ocean, E. India

Size: Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40] 6,000,000 cu. km. (for South Kerguelen) 9,100,000 cu. km. (for central Kerguelen-Brorken Ridge)

Age: 0.11 & 0.086 Ga (linked to Kerguelen hotspot)

Rating: A (1v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: South Kerguelen, ca. 110 Ma Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40] Frey et al., 2000[58], Elan Bank, 110? Ma Frey et al., 2000[58]; Rajmahal-Sylhet (India, Bangladesh), A 116-113 Ma Kent et al., 1997[56]; Central Kerguelen, Broken Ridge, 83 Ma Frey et al., 2000[58] Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40].

DIKES: Rajmahal-Sylhet, SSE trending Kent et al., 1997[56]; similar age dikes from southern India Ernst and Buchan, this volume, chapter 12[59] Radhakrishna et al., 1999[61].

COMMENT: Plume arrival at 110 Ma and second pulse arrived at 83 Ma Frey et al., 2000[58] Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40] Bercovici and Mahoney, 1994[60].


19 Nauru Basin oceanic flood basalt(O) event Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40]

Location: WC. Pacific Ocean

Size: 1,800,000 sq. km., 900,000 cu. km.

Age: 0.11 Ga

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Nauru Basin, 111 Ma Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40].


20 Ontong Java oceanic flood basalt(O) event Neal et al., 1997[52] Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40]

Location: WC. Pacific Ocean

Size: 1,900,000 sq. km., 44,400,000 cu. km.

Age: 0.125-0.119 Ga & 0.094-0.086 Ga (may be linked to Louisville hotspot)

Rating: A (1v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Ontong Java, ca. 122 and 90 Ma Neal et al., 1997[52] Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40].

COMMENT: World's largest large igneous province Neal et al., 1997[52]. Part of middle Cretaceous superplume event of Larson, 1991[53].


21 Manihiki Plateau oceanic flood basalt(O) event Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40] Neal et al., 1997[52]

Location: C. Pacific Ocean

Size: 800,000 sq. km., 8,800,000 cu. km.

Age: 0.125-0.119 Ga

Rating: A (1v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Manihiki Plateau, 123 Ma Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40] Neal et al., 1997[52].

COMMENT: part of middle Cretaceous superplume event of Larson, 1991[53].


22 Piñón oceanic flood basalt(O) event

Location: Ecuador

Age: 0.123 Ga

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Piñón formation Reynaud et al., 1999[62].

INTRUSIONS: Piñón formation Reynaud et al., 1999[62] (S 123±13 Ma Lapierre et al., 2000[63]).

COMMENT: Reynaud et al., 1999[62] notes that Piñón formation is coeval with middle Cretaceous superplume event of Larson, 1991[53].


23 Mid-Pacific Mountains event Neal et al., 1997[52]

Location: WC. North Pacific Ocean

Size: ~1,100,000 sq. km.

Age: 0.13-0.08 Ga

Rating: C (see comment)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Mid-Pacific Mountains (130-75 Ma) Neal et al., 1997[52].

COMMENT: part of middle Cretaceous superplume event of Larson, 1991[53]. Alternate interpretation as seamounts Coffin and Eldholm, 1992[64].


24 Paraná-Etendeka continental flood basalt(C) event Peate, 1997[65]

Location: South America (Brazil, Paraguay), Africa (Namibia, Angola)

Size: 2,000,000 sq. km. Peate, 1997[65], 1,800,000 sq. km. (South America portion); 250,000 sq. km. (African portion)

Age: mainly 0.134-0.129 Ga; some earlier magmatism (0.138-0.135 Ga) (continues to present as Tristan da Cunha hotspot)

Rating: A (1v, 2)

SOUTH AMERICA

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Paraná Peate, 1997[65], including: high-Ti/Y types, Urubici; Pitanga, Paranapanema, & Ribeira groups; and low-Ti/Y types, Gramado, & Esmeralda groups; South Atlantic volcanic margins Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40]; Maranhao high-Ti Fodor et al., 1990[66].

DIKES: Ponta Grossa, SE trending Piccirillo et al., 1990[67]; Paraguay, SE trending Druecker and Gay, 1987[68] Stewart et al., 1996[69]; Cerá-Mirim & Sardiñha (A 131.2±0.8 to 130.1±0.4 Ma, Marzoli et al., 2000[70]); rift parallel younger dikes (A 128-120 Ma) comprising: Santos-Rio de Janeiro, ENE trending; & Florianópolis, NNE trending Raposo et al., 1998[71].

SILLS: Peate, 1997[65].

AFRICA

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Etendeka (A 133-131 Ma Renne et al., 1996[72]), including: Tafelkop (Namibia); Kwanza (Angola) A 131.9±1.6 & 131.6±1.4 Ma Marzoli et al., 1999a[73]; Benue Trough (ne. Nigeria) A 138-130 Ma Maluski et al., 1995[74] Maluski et al., 1995[74].

DIKES: Horingbaai, NW & N trending, A 125-120 Ma Renne et al., 1997[75] Namibia, 1988[76] Duncan et al., 1990[77];?Morro-Velmo, E trending Peate, 1997[65]; Hentjesbay-Outjo, NNE-ENE arcuate swarm Vietor and Weber, 1999[78]; Kwanza, N trending, A 126.1±1.4 Ma Marzoli et al., 1999a[73].

SILLS: Huab; Tafelberg; Regional dolerites (sills?); Horingbaai dolerites (sills?) Peate, 1997[65].

OTHER INTRUSIONS: Damaraland intrusions.


25 Gascoyne Margin continental flood basalt(C) event Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40]

Location: adjacent NW. Australia

Size: 800,000 cu. km.

Age: 0.14 Ga

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Gascoyne Margin, 136 Ma Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40].


26 Magellan Rise oceanic flood basalt(O) event Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40]

Location: C. Pacific Ocean

Size: 500,000 sq. km., 1,800,000 cu. km.

Age: ca. 0.15 Ga

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Magellan Rise, 145 Ma Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40].


27 Shatsky Rise oceanic flood basalt(O) event Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40]

Location: WC. North Pacific Ocean

Size: 200,000 sq. km., 2,500,000 cu. km.

Age: 0.15 Ga

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Shatsky Rise, 147 Ma Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40] Neal et al., 1997[52].


28 Sorachi oceanic flood basalt(O) event

Location: N. Japan & Sakhalin, Russia

Size: >600,000 cu. km.

Age: Late Jurassic (Tithonian)

Rating: A (1v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Kimura et al., 1994[79] Kerr et al., 2000[80] Sorachi-Yezo unit (n. Japan); Kamuitkotan complex (Sakhalin, Russia).


29 Argo Basin Margin continental flood basalt(C) event Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40]

Location: E. Indian Ocean

Size: 100,000 sq. km.

Age: 0.16 Ga

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Argo Basin Margin, 155 Ma Eldholm and Coffin, 2000[40].


30 Trap continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: SW. Greenland

Size: 20,000 sq. km.

Age: 0.14-0.13 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Trap, SE trending, Nielsen, 1987[34] Fahrig and Freda, 1975[81] (A 138-133 Ma, Larsen et al., 1999[81a]).

COMMENT: Lamprophyric members of swarm yield K 150-120 Ma ages Hansen, 1980[82]


31 Karoo-Ferrar continental flood basalt(C) event Marsh et al., 1997[83]

Location: Karoo (Africa), Ferrar (Antartica), and Chon Aike silicic (South America) provinces

Plume head center: 22 S, 31 E (wrt southern Africa); additional centers also possible.

Size: originally 5,000,000 cu. km. White, 1997[84], originally (including underplating) 10,000,000 cu. km. White, 1997[84]; Karoo portion is 140,000 sq. km. probably originally 1,000,000 sq. km. White, 1997[84] and 2,500,000 cu. km. Storey and Kyle, 1997[85]); Ferrar province is 500,000 cu. km. Storey and Kyle, 1997[85]

Age: 0.183-0.179 Ga (possibly linked with present-day Bouvet hotspot)

Rating: A (1v, 3)

KAROO PROVINCE: (AFRICA & DRONNING MAUD LAND SECTOR OF E. ANTARCTICA) Storey and Kyle, 1997[85] Hargraves et al., 1997[86] Eales et al., 1984[87] White, 1997[84]

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Marsh et al., 1997[83] Hargraves et al., 1997[86], including: Lesotho volcanic rocks (low-Ti type) (A 180 Ma Hargraves et al., 1997[86]); Springbok Flats, Lebombo (A 180±2 Ma Marsh et al., 1997[83]).

DIKES: Lower Limpopo ESE-S radiating swarm Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5] Uken and Watkeys, 1997[88] comprising: Botswana (Okavango), ESE trending; Orange River (Olifants River), SSE trending; Lebombo, S trending; Lower Zambesi radiating swarm Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5]; other Karoo dikes Chevallier and Woodford, 1999[89] Hunter and Reid, 1987[90]. Triple junction rifts are associated with each radiating swarm Burke and Dewey, 1973[91].

SILLS: Central Karoo Chevallier and Woodford, 1999[89].

SILL-LIKE LAYERED INTRUSIONS: Mount Ayliff layered intrusion Cawthorn et al., 1991[92] Hattingh and de Wet, 1996[93](comprising: Insizwa, Ingeli, Tonti, & Tabankulum lobes.

COMMENT: picrites present Campbell and Griffiths, 1992[94].

FERRAR PROVINCE; TRANSANTARCTIC MOUNTAINS (ANTARCTICA, TASMANIA) Storey and Kyle, 1997[85] Fleming et al., 1997[95] Elliot et al., 1999[96]

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Kirkpatrick, A 180±2 Heimann et al., 1994[97].

SILLS: Ferrar (Uzb 183.6±2.1 Ma Encarnación et al., 1996[98]).

SILL-LIKE LAYERED INTRUSION: Dufek intrusion, (Ap 182±2.4 Ma Brewer et al. 1996[98a]), (Uz 183.9±0.3 Ma, Uz 182.7±0.4 Ma Minor and Mukasa, 1995[98b]) Ferris et al., 1998[99] Ford, 1990[100].

FALKLAND ISLANDS

DIKES: Falkland Islands Mitchell et al., 1999[101] Mussett and Taylor, 1994[102].

CHON AIKE PROVINCE (PATAGONIA AND WEST ANTARCTICA)

FELSIC VOLCANIC ROCKS: Chon Aike silicic large igneous province Pankhurst et al., 1998[103].


32 CAMP (Central Atlantic Magmatic Province) continental flood basalt(C) reconstructed event May, 1971[104] Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5]

Location: USA, S. America, Africa

Plume head center: 31 N, 78 W (wrt N. America)

Plume head center: 10 N, 55 W (wrt S. America)

Plume head center: 18 N, 20 W (wrt Africa)

Size: 7,000,000 sq. km. Marzoli et al., 1999b[105], North America portion (400,000 sq. km.), South America portion (2,900,000 sq. km.), Africa portion (1,200,000 sq. km.)

Age: 0.204-0.191 (with peak at 0.200) Ga (linked to present-day Fernando de Noronho hotspot by Hill, 1991[106] or Cape Verde hotspot (e.g., Burke, 1996[16] Courtney and White, 1986[107] Morgan et al., 1995[108]) by White and McKenzie, 1989[33]).

Rating: A (3)

DIKES: giant radiating dike swarm including: ENA (Eastern North America); Moroccan; Liberian; & South American dikes.

NORTH AMERICAN (E. CANADA, E. USA) May, 1971[104] Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5] Puffer and Ragland, 1992[108a] Greenough and Hodych, 1990[108b]

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Florida volcanic rocks; ENA rift valley flows (Ap 201±1.6, 199±1.4 Ma Hames et al., 2000[109].

DIKES: ENA (Eastern North America), NW-NE trending including: Shelburne dike (Abt 202±4 Ma Dunn et al., 1998[110]), dikes in Carolinas (Ap 201-199 Ma Hames et al., 2000[109].

SILLS: Palisades, Gettysburg, U 201±2 Dunning and Hodych, 1990[111].

SOUTH AMERICA May, 1971[104] Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5] Marzoli et al., 1999b[105]

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Maranhao low-Ti (Mosquito basalts A 190.5±1.6 to 198.5±0.8 Ma Marzoli et al., 1999b[105]) Fodor et al., 1990[66]; Tapirapua, A 196.6±1.8 Ma Marzoli et al., 1999b[105]; Anari, A 198.0±0.8 Ma; Ceará, 198.4±1.4 Ma Marzoli et al., 1999b[105]; & Guacamaya; Apoteri Gibbs, 1987[112] Sial et al., 1987[113].

DIKES: Amapá (Cassiporé, Apatoe), N-NW trending, (A 191.5±0.9 to 202.0±2.0 Ma Marzoli et al., 1999b[105]) (A 196.0±4.5 Ma Deckart et al., 1997[114]) Oliveira et al., 1990[115] Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5] Gibbs, 1987[112] Sial et al., 1987[113], Roraima, A 197.4±1.9 to 201.1±0.7 Ma Marzoli et al., 1999b[105], Guyana (Tukutu River, Berbice, Supenaam), NE trending; Bolivar (Cerro Boliviar), ENE trending MacDonald and Opdyke, 1974[116]; Penatecaua (Itaituba-Altamira), N Trending Ernst et al., 1996[117].

SILLS: sills of Amazonian basin Marzoli et al., 1999b[105].

AFRICA May, 1971[104] Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5]

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Moroccan, A 201.3±0.7 Ma and A 197.1±1.8 Ma Sebai et al., 1991a[118].

DIKES: Sebai et al., 1991a[118] Bertrand, 1991[119] Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5]. Moroccan, NE trending, including Foum Zguid dike, A 196.9±1.8 Sebai et al., 1991a[118] & Ksi Ksou dike, A 198±1.8 Sebai et al., 1991a[118]; E-ENE trending Taoudenni, (A 203.7±2.7 Ma, 200.9±2.5 Ma Sebai et al., 1991a[118]); Fouta Djalon (Guinea), E trending (A 201.4±1.0 Ma Deckart et al., 1997[114]); N trending Taoudenni; Liberian, SE trending.

SILLS: Mali Sebai et al., 1991a[118]; Fouta Djalon (Guinea), (A 200.4±0.2 and 194.8±0.5 Ma Deckart et al., 1997[114]).

LAYERED INTRUSIONS: Freetown Wells, 1962[119a]; Kakoulima (Guinee-Conakry) (A 195.8± 0.6 Ma, p. 215 in Deckart et al., 1997[114]) Diallo et al., 1992[120].

EUROPE (IBERIA)

DIKES: DIKE: Messejana dike, NE trending, Ab 203±3 Ma Dunn et al., 1998[110].

COMMENT: COMMENT:Arguments in favor of plume model (e.g., Hill, 1991[106] Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5]. Arguments against plume model in McHone, 2000[121].


33 Angayucham oceanic flood basalt(O) event

Location: Brooks Range, Alaska

Size: 150,000 sq. km.

Age: Late Triassic

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Pallister et al., 1989[122] Angayucham terrane; Tozitna terrane.

COMMENT: Oceanic plateaus and oceanic islands accreted onto the Brooks Range Pallister et al., 1989[122].


34 Wrangellia oceanic flood basalt(O) event

Location: Canada, USA (Alaska)

Size: 1,000,000 cu. km. Lassiter et al., 1995[123]

Age: 0.23 Ga

Rating: A (1v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Karmutsen & Nikolai Lassiter et al., 1995[123].

SILL-LIKE LAYERED INTRUSIONS: Kluane mafic-ultramafic belt Hulbert, 1997[124]; Maple Creek gabbros, Uz 232.2±1.0 Ma Mortensen and Hulbert, 1992[125].


35 Brisbane-Duaringa events

Location: E. Australia (New England fold belt)

Size: 300,000 sq. km.

Age: Mesozoic or yournger

Rating: C (see comment)

DIKES: Brisbane, ENE trending magnetic anomalies Boyd and Tucker, 1990[126]; Duaringa, SSE trending magnetic anomalies Boyd and Tucker, 1990[126].

COMMENT: Host terrain is Mesozoic and younger Boyd and Tucker, 1990[126]. The Brisbane swarm is 300 km long and 1100 km wide and the Duaringa swarm is 300 km long Ernst et al., 1996[117]. Interpretation of magnetic anomalies as dikes is not certain Boyd and Tucker, 1990[126].