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1500 Ma large mafic magmatic events

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126 Kuonamka continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: E. Russia (Anabar Shield)

Size: 20,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.50 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Kuonamka, E trending, Ub 1503±5 Ma Ernst et al., 2000[384] Okrugin et al., 1990[331].

COMMENT: Some dikes in Pri-Sayan area of Lake Baikal region have ages of ca. 1600 Ma Sekerin et al., 1991[385].


127 Breven-Hällefors continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: Sweden (Fennoscandian Shield)

Size: 40,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.5 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Breven-Hällefors, E trending, R 1535±25 Ma Gorbatschev et al., 1987[144].


128 Åland-Åboland and Värmland continental flood basalt(C) events

Location: Scandinavia (Fennoscandian Shield)

Size: 14,000 sq. km. (Värmland); 4,000 sq. km. (Åland-Åboland)

Age: 1.58-1.54 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Åland-Åboland, NE trending Gorbatschev et al., 1987[144] Alviola et al., 1999[386], (U 1577±12, 1540±12 Ma, Suominen, 1991[346]); Värmland, Ub 1568+30/-8 Ma, Wahlgren et al., 1996[387].

SILLS: Värmland sheets, (S 1512±98 Ma Johansson and Johansson, 1990[249]) Bylund, 1992[329] Zeck and Willadsen, 1990[388].

INTRUSION: rapakivi granites associated with Åland-Åboland dikes.


129 Gawler Range event

Location: S. Australia (Gawler Craton)

Age: 1.6-1.5 Ga

Rating: C (see comment)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Gawler Range (p. 443 in Goodwin, 1991[180]).

COMMENT: "Vast post-orogenic bimodal volcanic [mainly felsic] province" p. 443 in Goodwin, 1991[180]. Felsic volcanic rocks erupted over a short interval at 1592±2 Ma Fanning et al., 1988[389]. Giles, 1988[390]. This event may also extend into central and northern Australia and is linked by Giles, 1988[390] to mantle diapirism (p. 444 in Goodwin, 1991[180]). Olympic Dam ore deposit is approximately coeval (p. 444 in Goodwin, 1991[180]).


130 Round Hummock continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: NW. Australia (Pilbara craton)

Size: 70,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.6 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Round Hummock, NW trending Hickman and Lipple, 1978[391], (ca. 1600 Ma p. 192 in Geological Survey of Western Australia, 1990[164]); Hamersley basin-1, SE trending, 2500-2100 Ma Parker et al., 1987[216] Boyd and Tucker, 1990[126].

COMMENT: Hamersley basin-1 name after Ernst et al., 1996[117].


131 Southeast Baltica-1 continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: E.Europe, W. Russian (SE. Fennoscandian Shield)

Age: 1.6 Ga

Rating: C (8, 9v)

MAGMATISM: Nikishin et al., 1996[129] Lagutenkova and Chepikova, 1982[371].

COMMENT: In the middle Early Riphean, southeast Baltica was affected by major rifting that was accompanied by tholeiitic basaltic magmatism (p. 28-29 in Nikishin et al., 1996[129]).


132 Melville Bugt continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: WC. Greenland (Greenland Shield)

Size: 220,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.65 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Melville Bugt, SE trending, R 1645±35 Ma Kalsbeek and Taylor, 1986[392] Nielsen, 1990[212] Escher, 1980[393].


133 Tiruvannamalai event

Location: S. India (Granulite domain)

Age: 1.65 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Tiruvannamalai, NW & NE trending, K 1650±10 Ma Radhakrishna et al., 1999[61].

SILLS: ?Cuddapah Murthy et al., 1987[394].


134 Hamë continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: Finland (Fennoscandian Shield)

Size: 40,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.676-1.640 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Hamë, ESE trending, (Ub 1667±9, Uz 1646±6, Uz 1645±3, Uz 1636±16 Ma Vaasjoki and Sakko, 1989[395] Vaasjoki et al., 1991[396]) Laitakari and Leino, 1989[397] Laitakari, 1969[398] Kallio, 1987[399].

INTRUSION: Wiborg rapakivi granites Alviola et al., 1999[386].


135 Oenpelli continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: N. Australia (Pine Creek inlier)

Size: 20,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.7 Ga

Rating: C (9s)

SILLS: Oenpelli Dolerite, Parker et al., 1987[216] Stuart-Smith and Ferguson, 1978[400] Needham, 1988[401] (R 1688±13 Ma Page et al., 1980[402]).


136 Karimnagar event

Location: India

Size: 250,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.70-1.65 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Karimnagar, ENE-NE trending, 1700-1650 Ma Murthy et al., 1987[394] Radhakrishna and Joseph, 1993[270]) Rao et al., 1990[271] Halls, 1982[272].

SILLS: ?Cuddapah sills Murthy et al., 1987[394].

COMMENT: Cuddapah sills may belong to the Karimnagar, the Kolar (event 145), or the Dharmapuri (event 148) events.


137 Uruguayan continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: Uruguay (Rio de Plata Craton)

Size: 20,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.79 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Uruguayan, ENE trending, A 1727±10 Ma Teixeira et al., 1999[403].

COMMENT: Now dated at Ub 1790±5 Ma Halls et al., 2001[403a].


138 Espinhaço continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: Brazil (São Francisco Craton)

Age: 1.75 Ga

Rating: C (8)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Espinhaço Uz ca. 1750 Ma (de Brito Neves, personal communication, cited on p. 420 in Goodwin, 1991[180]).

COMMENT: Deposited in "rift-sag" basin Pedrosa-Soares and Wiedermann-Leonardos, 2000[248a]. Plume model in Oliveira, 1991[330a].


139 Dubois-Cochetopa events

Location: NW. USA, Colorado (Wyoming province)

Age: 1.76-1.74 Ga

Rating: C (possibly 8)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Dubois (ca. 1760 Ma), Cochetopa (ca. 1740 Ma) (includes thick gabbo sills) Hill et al., 1999[404] Bickford et al., 1989[405].

COMMENT: Arc model Bickford et al., 1989[405] and rift models Hill et al., 1999[404] proposed for Dubois and Cochetopa volcanic rocks.


140 Harts Range continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: C. Australia (Arunta inlier)

Size: 2100 sq. km.

Age: 1.77 Ga

Rating: C (possibly 8)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Harts Range Sivell, 1986[406] Sivell, 1988[407] (1770 Ma Sun, 1997[408]).

SILLS: Harts Range Sivell, 1986[406] Sivell, 1988[407] (1770 Ma Sun, 1997[408]).

COMMENT: Two meta-tholeiite suites. On the basis of geochemistry, the older suite originated in a rift setting, & the younger suite suggests a convergent setting Sivell, 1988[407].


141 Taihang-Hengshan continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: China (North China craton)

Size: 120,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.77 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Taihang-Hengshan, NW trending, Uz 1769±2.5 Ma Halls et al., 2000[409] Li et al., 1999[409a].


142 Eastern Creek event(s)

Location: Northern Australia (Mount Isa block)

Age: 1.79 & 1.74 Ga

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Eastern Creek, Stewart and Blake, 1992[410], (1770 Ma Sun, 1997[408]); Tewinga Gp (p. 439-442 in Goodwin, 1991[180] (Uz 1783±5 & 1790±9 Ma for felsic rocks Page, 1988[411]).

DIKES: Mount Isa block-3 (Western 2-Eastern 3), N-NE trending, 1740-1600 Ma Parker et al., 1987[216] Ellis and Wyborn, 1984[308]; Mount Isa block-2 (Western 1-Eastern 2), N trending, ca. 1780 Ma Parker et al., 1987[216] Ellis and Wyborn, 1984[308].

SILLS: sills of Myally subgroup Stewart and Blake, 1992[410].

INTRUSION: Lunch Creek gabbro, (Uz 1740±25 Ma Page, 1983[310]) Parker et al., 1987[216].


143 Hart continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: Australia (Kimberley basin)

Size: 170,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.79 Ga

Rating: B (4s)

DIKES: ? Halls Creek Province-2, SE trending, 2100-1750 Ma Parker et al., 1987[216].

SILLS: Hart Dolerite, (Uz ca. 1790±4 Ma in OZCHRON database cited in Page and Hoatson, 2000[412]) Page and Sun, 1994[413] Sun, 1997[408]. (p.232 in Tyler et al., 1998[414]) Parker et al., 1987[216]; Fish Hole Dolerite (epidotized) Parker et al., 1987[216].


144 Avanavero (Roraima) continental flood basalt(C) event(s)

Location: (mainly Guyana Shield)

Size: 300,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.79 Ga

Rating: B (4sd)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Canaima in Venezuela Sidder and Mendoza S., 1995[416]; Santa Elena de Uairén in Venezuela Sidder and Mendoza S., 1995[416]; Tafelberg in Suriname Sidder and Mendoza S., 1995[416]; Irere in Central Brazil Shield, 1800-1750 Ma p. 417 in Goodwin, 1991[180].

DIKES: Avanavero (1800-1500 Ma Sidder and Mendoza S., 1995[416] Gibbs, 1987[112] Sial et al., 1987[113] Choudhuri et al., 1990[417]: includes NE trending Guaniamo, Majoli ( & Western Suriname) & Supenaan swarms; and NW trending Rio, Kayser & Pedra Preto swarms.

SILLS: Avanavero Wirth et al., 1990[418] Gibbs, 1987[112].

DIKE-SILL COMPLEX: Tumatumari-Kopinang dike-sill complex Hawkes, 1966[419] Wirth et al., 1990[418] Gibbs, 1987[112].

COMMENT: Teixeira et al., 1999[403] suggests age of K 1670±28 Ma based on various references. Based on review of literature Sidder and Mendoza S., 1995[416] suggest age of 1650 Ma, but possibly as old as 1850 Ma. New precise age on a Avanavero dike = Uzb 1794±4 Ma Norcross et al., 2000[420].


145 Kolar event

Location: India

Size: 140,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.8-1.6 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Kolar (Swarm 3), E-ENE trending, K 1800-1600 Ma Radhakrishna and Joseph, 1993[270] Murthy et al., 1987[394] Murthy, 1987[421] Halls, 1982[272].

SILLS: ?Cuddapah Murthy et al., 1987[394].

COMMENT: Cuddapah sills may belong to the Karimnagar (event 136), the Kolar, or the Dharmapuri (event 148) events.


146 Sparrow continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: Canada (Churchill province, Canadian Shield)

Size: 100,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.831-1.823 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Sparrow, SE-ESE trending, U 1827±4 Ma Bostock and van Breemen, 1992[422] McGlynn et al., 1974[423].


147 East Kimberley continental flood basalt(C) events Hoatson and Blake, 2000[424]

Location: Australia (Halls Creek province)

Size: >5,000 sq. km. (layered intrusions)

Age: 1.86, 1.84, & 1.83 Ga

Rating: B (4vid)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Butchers Gully Sun, 1997[408]; felsic Whitewater (ca. 1855 Ma) Page et al., 1995[425].

DIKES: ? Halls Creek Province-2, SE trending, 2100-1750 Ma Parker et al., 1987[216].

SILL-LIKE AND FUNNEL-SHAPED LAYERED INTRUSIONS: East Kimberley layered intrusions (folded sheets, faulted blocks) Hoatson, 1993[426] Page et al., 1995[425] Hoatson and Tyler, 1993[427] Sproule et al., 1999[428]: includes: Melon Patch, South Melon Patch, West McIntosh, Mini, Highway, West Robin Soak, Big Ben, Wild Dog Creek, West Panton, McIntosh (Uz 1830±3 Ma), Northeast McIntosh, Three Sisters, Armanda, Panton (Uz 1856±2 Ma) Panton River, Springvale (Uz 1857±2 Ma), Toby (Uz 1855±2), Juries, Paperbark-Sandy Dam, Billymac Yard, Sandy Creek, Togo, Black Hills Yard, Egg, McKenzies Spring, Spring Creek, Tickalara Bore, Dave Hill, Three Nuns, Sally Malay (Uz 1844±3, Ub 1846±5 Ma), Keller Creek, & Fletcher Creek.

INTRUSIONS: Bow granites, 1860-1850 Ma Page et al., 1995[425].

COMMENT: Could the Barramundi Igneous Association (felsic large igneous province dated 1880-1840 Ma (p. 357 in Goodwin, 1991[180]), be related?


148 Dharmapuri event

Location: India (Southern Indian Shield, high grade terrane)

Size: 125,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.8 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Dharmapuri, SE trending, A >1800, possibly 1855±9 Ma Radhakrishna et al., 1999[61].

SILLS: ?Cuddapah Murthy et al., 1987[394].

COMMENT: Cuddapah sills may belong to the Karimnagar (event 136), the Kolar (event 145), or the Dharmapuri events.


149 Winagami continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: W. Canada (Western Canada basin)

Size: 120,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.9-1.7 Ga

Rating: B (4s)

SILLS: Ross and Eaton, 1997[429] Winagami seismic reflection sequence; G <1890 Ma >1760 Ma.


150 Molson event Baragar and Scoates, 1987[430]

Location: Canada (NW. Superior province, Canadian Shield)

Size: 30,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.885-1.881 Ga

Rating: B (5)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Fox River Belt; Ospwagan (Thompson Nickel Belt).

DIKES: Molson (Cuthbert), NNE trending, Uz 1883±2, 1884±2 Ma Heaman et al., 1986[431]; Zhai et al., 1994[432], Uz 1877+7/-4 Ma Halls and Heaman, 2000[433].

SILLS: Fox River sills (Uz 1882.9+1.5/-1.4 Ma Heaman et al., 1986[431]) Scoates, 1990[434] Scoates and Eckstrand, 1986[435] Hatton and Von Gruenewaldt, 1990[436].

COMMENT: Both mafic and ultramafic compositions are present in flows, sills, and dikes. Are Molson, New Quebec cycle-2, and Chukotot events (nos. 150, 151, & 153) part of a single plume event St-Onge et al., 2000[437]?


151 New Quebec cycle-2 continental flood basalt(C) event Findlay et al., 1995[438] Skulski et al., 1993[439]

Location: E. Canada (New Quebec orogen)

Size: 30,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.885 Ga

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Willbob (P 1885±67 Ma Rohon et al., 1993[440]), Hellancourt, & upper Menihek basalts.

SILLS: Montagnais (Uz 1884±2 Ma Findlay et al., 1995[438]) (U 1874±3 Ma Machado, 1990[441]).

COMMENT: Many sills and flows contain abundant glomeroporphyritic in plagioclase. Also ultramafic sills are present. Are Molson, New Quebec?cycle 2, and Chukotot events (nos. 151, 152, & 153) part of a single plume event St-Onge et al., 2000[437]?


152 Biscay continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: N. Australia (Halls Creek orogen)

Age: 1.88 Ga

Rating: C (8)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Biscay formation Sheppard et al., 1999[442] (age from felsic member Uz 1880±3 Ma Blake et al., 1998[443]).

COMMENT: Tectonic setting interpreted to be a continental rift and passive continental margin Sheppard et al., 1999[442].


153 Chukotat continental flood basalt(C) events St-Onge et al., 1997[444]

Location: NE. Canada (Cape Smith belt)

Size: 5000 sq. km., 12,000 sq. km. (including sills)

Age: 1.92-1.87 Ga

Rating: C (possibly 9vs)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: lower Chukotat group (komatiitic basalt), upper Chukotat group (MORB) (U 1870±4 Ma St-Onge et al., 2000[437].

SILLS: Katiniq Suite sills (Ubz 1918+9/-7 Ma Parrish, 1989[445]) equivalent to lower Chukotat Group volcanic rocks Parrish, 1989[445] Machado et al., 1993[446].

COMMENT: Preserved in thrust package. Are Molson, New Quebec cycle-2, and Chukotot events (nos. 151, 152, & 153) part of a single plume event St-Onge et al., 2000[437]?


154 Flin Flon belt oceanic flood basalt(O) event

Location: C. Canada (Flin Flon belt)

Age: ca. 1.9 Ga

Rating: B (4v, 6)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Sandy Bay assemblage Lucas et al., 1996[447] Stern et al., 1995[448].


155 Zamu continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: N. Australia (Pine Creek block)

Size: 20,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.9 Ga

Rating: C (9s)

SILLS: Zamu Ferguson and Needham, 1978[449].

COMMENT: Thick (up to 1 km) tholeiitic sills, which are folded and generally metamorphosed to amphibolites Ferguson and Needham, 1978[449] Parker et al., 1987[216].


156 Soutpansberg-Waterberg-Olifantshoek continental flood basalt(C) event(s)

Location: South Africa (Limpopo belt, Kaapvaal Craton)

Age: 1.9 Ga

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Soutpansberg tholeiitic lavas, 1960-1800 Ma Barton and Pretorius, 1997[450]; Hartley basalt formation (Olifantshoek Supergroup), P 1928±4 Ma Cornell et al., 1998[451].

DIKES: ENE trending dikes in Limpopo belt Barton, 1979[452] Hunter and Reid, 1987[90].

COMMENT: Found along western and northern margins of Kaapvaal craton. Soutpansberg linked with Mashonaland event by Barton and Pretorius, 1997[450].


157 Mashonaland continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: Zimbabwe (Zimbabwe Craton)

Size: 160,000 sq. km. (Fig. 1 in Barton and Pretorius, 1997[450])

Age: 1.9 Ga

Rating: B (4s)

DIKES: Sebanga (includes Bubi-Crystal Springs), SSE trending Wilson et al., 1987[256] Wilson, 1990[453]; Mazowe, E trending Wilson et al., 1987[256] Wilson, 1990[453].

SILLS: Mashonaland Wilson et al., 1987[256] Wilson, 1990[453] Mushayandebvu et al., 1995[454].


158 Guiana Shield event(s)

Location: Brazil, Guyana, French Guiana, Venezuela, Suriname (Guiana Shield)

Age: 1.9 Ga

Rating: C (9I)

INTRUSIONS: Small intrusions: Tapuruquara suite, Kaburi anorthosite, Appinitic suite, Itaki gabbro, Tampoc gabbros, San Juan de Manapiare complex, De Goeje gabbros (ca. 1900 Ma Gibbs, 1987[112], pre- or syn-Transamazonian Wirth et al., 1990[418]).

COMMENT: "Some may be the deep-seated magma chambers to the younger, mid-Proterozoic dike and sill complexes (Gibbs, 1987b)" Gibbs, 1987[112] Wirth et al., 1990[418].


159 Mugford continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: E. Canada (Nain province)

Size: 400 sq. km., 1.2 km thick.

Age: 1.95 Ga

Rating: C (possibly 8)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Mugford Group Hamilton, 1993[455] Hamilton, 1994[456] Barton, 1975[457] (U ca. 1950 Ma, M. Hamilton, 2000, personal communication).

COMMENT: Geochemistry is similar to continental rift or plateau basalts Hamilton, 1994[456]. Deposited on Archean basement and preserved in graben Hamilton, 1993[455]. Ramah & Snyder supracrustals also overlie Archean basement in northern Labrador; could they be related?


160 Northern Baltica-2 continental flood basalt(C) event Puchtel et al., 1998a[458]

Location: Norway, Sweden, Finland, W. Russia (Fennoscandian Shield)

Size: 600,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.97 Ga

Rating: A (1v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Mafic-ultramafic lavas Puchtel et al., 1998a[458]: Onega (P 1980±57, Uz 1976±9 Ma), Karasjok, Kittilä (S 1990±35 Ma), upper Pechenga (S 1977±52, P 1988±39, Uz 1970±5 Ma); Outokumpu, 1970 Ma Sorjonen-Ward et al., 1997[459]; Jormua ophiolite, 1950 Ma Peltonen et al., 1996[460] Sorjonen-Ward et al., 1997[459].

DIKES: Finland, SE trending, U 1965±10 Ma Vuollo et al., 1995[461], ca. U 1981 Ma (J. Vuollo, 1999, personal communication).

SILLS: Puchtel et al., 1998a[458]: Koikarsky and other sills; Konchozero sill (Onega area) S 1975±24 Ma.

LAYERED INTRUSIONS: Layered intrusions Sharkov and Smolkin, 1998[462]: Gremyakha-Vyrmes, Pilgujarvi (P 1988±39 Ma).


161 Flaherty continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: Canada (Circum-Superior Belt)

Age: <2.0 Ga (less than Eskimo), same as Povungnituk Baragar and Scoates, 1987[430]

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Flaherty volcanic rocks Buchan et al., 1998[463] Schmidt, 1980[464] Arndt et al., 1987[465] (P 1960±80 Ma Todt et al., 1984[466].

SILLS: Haig sheet-like intrusions Buchan et al., 1998[463] Schmidt, 1980[464].


162 Minto event

Location: Canada (Circum-Superior belt, N. Superior province)

Size: 10,000 sq. km. (for dikes only)

Age: 2.000-1.996 Ga

Rating: B (4vd)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: ? Eskimo volcanic rocks Buchan et al., 1998[463] Schmidt, 1980[464] Arndt et al., 1987[465]; ? Persillon (Pachi) volcanic rocks Buchan et al., 1998[463] Schwarz and Fujiwara, 1981[467] Legault et al., 1994[468] (p. 289 in Goodwin, 1991[180]).

DIKES: Minto, ESE trending, U 1998±2 Ma Buchan et al., 1998[463]; ?Inukjuak, SE trending Buchan et al., 1998[463] Legault et al., 1994[468].

COMMENT: thrust sheet with ophiolites are same age as Minto dikes: Purtuniq ophiolite (Watts Group in Cape Smith belt) 1998±2 Parrish, 1989[445].


163 Agali-Anaikatti event

Location: S. India (S. India granulite terrane)

Age: 1.98 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Agali-Anaikatti, ENE trending, K 1980±25 Ma Radhakrishna et al., 1999[61].