250 Ma large mafic magmatic events

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36 Siberian Traps continental flood basalt(C) event Sharma, 1997[127] Renne and Basu, 1991[128]

Location: Russia (Siberian craton)

Plume head center: 72.5 N, 96 E

Size: 340,000 sq. km. (extrusive only) 1,500,000 sq. km. (flows, sills and dikes), >2,000,000 cu. km.

Age: mainly 0.251-0.249 Ga Sharma, 1997[127]

Rating: A (1v, 3)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Siberian Traps (can be broadly divided into four regions of different volcanic sequences): Maimecha-Kotui, Noril'sk, Putorana & Nizhnyaya Tunguska Sharma, 1997[127]; Polar Ural-Pay Khoy & West Siberian basin Nikishin et al., 1996[129].

DIKES: ESE-SE fanning swarm comprising: Ebekhaya, ESE trending Tomshin et al., 1997[130]; Maymecha, SE trending Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5]; Kochikha (Avamsky), ~E-NE trending arcuate swarm Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5] Ernst and Buchan, 1998[131].

SILLS: Sharma, 1997[127].

SILL-LIKE LAYERED INTRUSIONS: Noril'sk intrusions, (Uzb 251.2± 0.3 Kamo et al., 1996[132]) Fedorenko et al., 1996[133].

COMMENT: picrites present Campbell and Griffiths, 1992[94].


37 Emeishan continental flood basalt(C) event Dmitriev and Bogatikov, 1996[134] Chung and Jahn, 1995[135]

Location: China

Size: 250,000 sq. km.

Age: 0.258 Ga

Rating: A (1v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Emeishan Chung et al., 1998[136] , (Uz 251.2± 3.4 Ma Claoué-Long et al., 1991[137] Chung and Jahn, 1995[135]); (258 Ma Courtillot et al., 1999[138]).

COMMENT: The 251 Ma age determined from volcanic ash bed; The 258 Ma age is based on stratigraphic constraints.


38 Cache Creek oceanic flood basalt(O) event(s)

Location: W. Canada (Cache Creek terrane, Canadian Cordillera)

Size: ~1500 km long, 50 -100 km wide

Age: Middle Permian & Late Triassic

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Cache Creek Mihalynuk et al., 1994[139] Tardy and Lapierre, 1999[140].

COMMENT: Middle Permian and Late Triassic basalts representing different levels of an oceanic plateau subsequently accreted to North America during the Late Jurassic Tardy and Lapierre, 1999[140].


39 Himalaya Neotethys continental flood basalt(C) event Garzanti et al., 1999[141]

Location: N. India, Pakistan, Nepal, Tibet

Size: ~200,000 sq. km.

Age: Early Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian)

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Panjal Traps, Nar-Tsum, Abor, Bhote-Kosi, & ? Woniusi Garzanti et al., 1999[141].

COMMENT: "Roughly contemporaneous emplacement of continental flood basalts of similar geochemical signature along a 2000 km rift axis" (p. 533 in Garzanti et al., 1999[141]).


40 Tarim block continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: NW. China (Tarim block)

Age: 0.28 Ga

Rating: C (9d)

DIKES: Tarim block, NW trending, K 282 Ma Zhang et al., 1996[142].


41 Jutland continental flood basalt(C) event Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5]

Location: Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom

Plume head center: 57.5 N, 8.5 E

Size: 150,000 sq. km.

Age: 0.300 Ga

Rating: A (3)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Upton et al., 1999[143].

DIKES: Jutland radiating swarm Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5] comprising: Oslo, NNW-NNE trending Gorbatschev et al., 1987[144] Neumann et al., 1992[145]; Whin-Midland Valley, ENE trending Smythe et al., 1995[146] Macdonald et al., 1981[147]; Scania, ESE trending Gorbatschev et al., 1987[144] Smythe et al., 1995[146].

SILLS: Whin & Midland Valley Dunham and Strasser-King, 1982[148], (p. 98 in Hall, 1996[149]) (U ca. 300 Ma, M. Hamilton, 2000, personal communication).

COMMENT: Perhaps part of Permo-Carboniferous European?northwest African (EUNWA) superplume event Doblas et al., 1998[150]. Triple rift junction associated with radiating swarm Burke and Dewey, 1973[91].


42 EUNWA (European-northwest Africa) continental flood basalt(C) event(s)

Location: Europe, northwest Africa

Size: 4,500,000 sq. km.

Age: Permo-Carboniferous, mainly Stephanian-Autunian

Rating: C (probably 10)

MAGMATISM: in the Alps, Bohemian Massif, Bamble/Oslo region, Cantabria, central North Sea, Corsica-Sardinia, Horn Graben, Massif Central, North Sea-Dutch-German-Polish province, northern United Kingdom, Pyrenees, Scotland, Saar-Nahe Trough, Saale Trough, the lberian Ranges and Spanish Central System; & Morocco Doblas et al., 1998[150].

COMMENT: Proposed as a superplume event Doblas et al., 1998[150]. However, "small volume of the volcanism and its scattered distribution both in time and space is not typical of a 'Large Igneous Province'" (p. 95 Doblas et al., 1998[150]).


43 Panzhihua continental flood basalt(C) event Zhang et al., 1990[151] Lu et al., 1989[152]

Location: China

Size: 5000 sq. km.

Age: 0.4-.0.3 Ga

Rating: C (8)

LAYERED INTRUSIONS: Panzhihua complex, R 373 Ma; Hongge complex, R 343 Ma; Baima complex, R 306 Ma; & Taihe complex.

COMMENT: rift event.


44 Yakutsk continental flood basalt(C) event Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5] Shpount and Oleinikov, 1987[154]

Location: E. Russia

Plume head center: 66 N, 132 E

Size: 800,000 sq. km. Ernst et al., 1996[117]

Age: 0.35 Ga

Rating: A (3)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Dzhalkan lavas Levashov, 1979[153].

DIKES: Yakutsk NW-S fanning swarm Shpount and Oleinikov, 1987[154] Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5] comprising: Chara-Sinsk, NE trending; Vilyui-Marcha, NE trending; Dzhardzhan, SE trending; Tomporuk, N trending.


45 East European Craton continental flood basalt(C) event(s)

Location: W. Russia, Ukraine, eastern Europe

Size: 3,000,000 sq km.

Age: 0.365 Ga

Rating: A (1v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Dnieper-Donets Wilson and Lyashkevich, 1996[155] Nikishin et al., 1996[129], Timan Nikishin et al., 1996[129], Kolva Nikishin et al., 1996[129], Kola Peninsula Wilson and Lyashkevich, 1996[155] Nikishin et al., 1996[129], Voronezh Wilson and Lyashkevich, 1996[155], Novaya Zemlya Korago et al., 1989[156] (p. 49 in Nikishin et al., 1996[129]).

DIKES: Berkovsky and Platunova, 1987[157] Wilson and Lyashkevich, 1996[155]: Dnieper-Donets, variable trending; Moskva, E trending =600 Ma Berkovsky and Platunova, 1987[157]; Saratov, E-ENE trending (=600 Ma) Berkovsky and Platunova, 1987[157]; Voronezh, N-NNW trending (=600 Ma) Berkovsky and Platunova, 1987[157]; L'vov, SE trending (=600 Ma) Berkovsky and Platunova, 1987[157]; Kirov, NNE trending (=600 Ma) Berkovsky and Platunova, 1987[157]; Timan, SE-SSE trending (680-350 Ma) Berkovsky and Platunova, 1987[157].

COMMENT: A cluster of mantle plumes causing synchronous volcanism, rifting, and uplift on the East European Platform in the Devonian Kuznir et al., 1999[158]. Peak of volcanism is Famennian, ca. 365 Ma Wilson and Lyashkevich, 1996[155]. Kola Peninsula alkaline igneous province is probably part of same event Wilson and Lyashkevich, 1996[155].


46 Kyrgyzatin continental flood basalt(C) event Zhang et al., 1990[151] Lu et al., 1989[152]

Location: Kyrgyzstan (Southern Tian-Shan Mountains)

Age: Devonian

Rating: C (9vsd)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Kyrgyzatin Biske, 1996[159].

DIKES: Kyrgyzatin Biske, 1996[159].

SILLS: Kyrgyzatin Biske, 1996[159].

COMMENT: Age of flows constrained by paleontological dating of host sedimentary rocks Biske, 1996[159].


47 Belaya River continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: SE. Siberia (Sette-Daban area)

Age: 0.56-0.43 Ga

Rating: C (9s)

SILLS: Belaya River, K 560-430 Ma Yan-Zhin-Shin, 1983[160].

COMMENT: May be difficult to distinguish from Sette Daban sills in same area; see event 82.