500 Ma large mafic magmatic events

Printer-friendly versionPrinter-friendly versionSend to friendSend to friend

48 Crimson Creek continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: Australia (Tasmania)

Age: Cambrian

Rating: B (7)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Crimson Creek formation & correlated units Crawford and Berry, 1992[161].

COMMENT: rift volcanic rocks (tholeiitic picrites to evolved ferrobasalts) Crawford and Berry, 1992[161].


49 Antrim continental flood basalt(C) event Hanley and Wingate, 2000[162] Veevers, 1984[163] Geological Survey of Western Australia, 1990[164] Hanley, 2000[165] Bultitude, 1976[165a]

Location: N. Australia (Birrindudu, Ord, Officer, & Bonaparte basins, & Halls Creek orogen) & ?SW. Australia, ?South Australia)

Size: 450,000 sq. km (p. 282 in Veevers, 1984[163])

Age: 0.51 Ga

Rating: A (1v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: flood basalt Grey, 1990[166]: Antrim Plateau (in Ord, Bonaparte, Birrindudu basins) Grey, 1990[166]; Nutwood Down Hanley, 2000[165]; Helen Springs Hanley, 2000[165]; Peaker Piker Hanley, 2000[165]; Colless Hanley, 2000[165]; Table Hill volcanic rocks (in Officer Basin) Iasky, 1990[167] Grey, 1990[166], R? 575± 40 Ma Compston, 1974[168]; KKulyong volcanic rocks (South Australia) (p.415 in Geological Survey of Western Australia, 1990[164]).

DIKES: Milliwindi (Kimberley Basin), Uz 513±12 Ma Hanley and Wingate, 2000[162] Hanley, 2000[165]; ? E trending dikes in Albany Mobile belt & Fraser Mobile belt Harris and Li, 1995[169]; ? "post-D2" metamorphosed dikes (Adelaide Fold Belt) Uz 510±2 Chen and Liu, 1996[170]; ? Willyama Inlier, NW trending, (p. 140 in Wingate et al., 1998[171]); dolerite in Savory Basin (U ca. 510 Ma, M. Wingate, 2000, personal communication).

COMMENT: The Bunger Hills region of East Antartica was opposite the Albany Mobile belt in Gondwana reconstructions and contains similar age dikes Harris and Li, 1995[169].


50 Wichita Mountains continental flood basalt(C) event Gilbert, 1986[172] Cameron et al., 1986[173]

Location: SC. USA

Size: 30,000 sq. km. Purucker, 1986[174]

Age: 0.53 Ga

Rating: B (4i)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Navajoe Mountain Basalt-Spilite Group Cameron et al., 1986[173].

DIKES: ? Gunnison, ESE trending, R 497±16 Ma Larson et al., 1985[175] Cameron et al., 1986[173]; aeromagnetic anomalies Purucker, 1986[174].

SILLS: ? widespread diabase encountered in drill core (Fig. 3 in Purucker, 1986[174]).

LAYERED INTRUSIONS: Raggedy Mountain gabbro group: includes Glen Mountains layered complex S 528±29 Ma, R 577±165 Ma (>Roosevelt gabbros) and Roosevelt gabbros: Mount Sheridan gabbro (Uz 552±7 Ma, Bowring and Hoppe, 1982[176]), (A 535±8 A 533±2, A 533±4 Ma Hogan et al., 1995[177] Hogan et al., 1996[178]).

COMMENT: Associated felsic magmatism, Wichita Granite group, is coeval (Mount Scott Granite Uz 535±3, A 539±2 Ma) Deggeller et al., 1996[179] Hogan et al., 1996[178].


51 Ouarzazate event

Location: NW. Africa (Anti-Atlas Domain)

Age: 0.58-0.56 Ga

Rating: C (8)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Ouarzazate, 578±15, 563±20 Ma (p. 529-530 in Goodwin, 1991[180]).

COMMENT: Represents initial extensional episode for the ensuing Caledonian-Hercynian tectonic cycle (p. 530 in Goodwin, 1991[180].


52 Late Central-Iapetus continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: SE. USA, E. Canada

Size: >7000 sq. km. (Catoctin only)

Age: 0.575-0.550 Ga

Rating: B (4vi)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Catoctin formation basalts Uz 564±9 Ma Aleinikoff et al., 1995[181]; Unicoi formation basalts Brewer and Thomas, 1998[182].

DIKES: Feeders to Catoctin Uz 572±5 Ma Brewer and Thomas, 1998[182].

OTHER VOCANIC ROCKS: Skinner Cove alkaline basalts, Uz 550.5+3/-2 Ma McCausland and Hodych, 1998[183]; Tibbit Hill transitional to alkaline basalts and minor comendites, Uz 554 Ma Kumarapeli et al., 1989[184].

LAYERED INTRUSION: Sept Iles layered intrusion Uz 564±3 Ma Higgins and van Breemen, 1998[185].

COMMENT: Early tholeiitic pulse at 620-590 Ma and later pulse of largely transitional to alkaline at 570-550 Ma Cawood et al., 1999[186].


53 Middle Central-Iapetus continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: E. Canada, NE. USA

Size: 140,000 sq. km.

Age: 0.592-589 Ga

Rating: A (1d, possibly 3)

DIKES: Grenville, ESE trending, U 590+2/-1 Ma, St. Seymour and Kumarapeli, 1995[187] Kamo et al., 1995[188] Kumarapeli, 1993[189]; Adirondack, E-NNE trending St. Seymour and Kumarapeli, 1995[187], A 588-542 Isachsen et al., 1988[190].


54 Early Central-Iapetus continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: E. Canada, NE. USA

Size: 105,000 sq. km.

Age: 0.617-0.613 Ga

Rating: B (5)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Lighthouse Cove (p. 397 in Baragar, 1977[191]).

DIKES: Long Range, NE trending, U 615± 2 Ma Murthy et al., 1992[192] Kamo et al., 1989[193].

COMMENT: Long Range & Egersund (in event 55) dikes linked by Bingen and Demaiffe, 1999[194].


55 Baltoscandian continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: Scandinavia

Size: 1000 km long (Baltoscandian dike swarm)

Age: 0.619-0.613 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Egersund, ESE trending, Ub 616±3 Ma Bingen et al., 1998[195] Bingen and Demaiffe, 1999[194]; Baltoscandian (Särv), N trending, ca. 600 Ma Andréasson et al., 1992[196] Andréasson, 1987[197] Solyom et al., 1985[198], includes Sarek, U 608± 1 Ma Svenningsen, 1999[199].

COMMENT: Egersund & Long Range (in event 54) dikes linked by Bingen and Demaiffe, 1999[194].


56 Volyn continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: E. Europe (SW. East European craton)

Size: 140,000 sq. km. (volcanic rocks)

Age: 0.65-0.57 Ga

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Volyn 650-570 Ma Nikishin et al., 1996[129] Garetsky and Zinovenko, 1994[200].

DIKES: Could some of the dikes of East European craton (see event 45): Moskva, Saratov; Voronezh, L'vov, & Kirov (with ages of =600 Ma Berkovsky and Platunova, 1987[157]) and the Timan (680-350 Ma Berkovsky and Platunova, 1987[157]) be part of Volyn event?


57 Gannakouriep continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: South Africa, Namibia

Size: 30,000 sq. km. (dikes only)

Age: 0.72 Ga

Rating: B (5, possibly 3)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: ? Grootderm formation Frimmel et al., 1996a[201]; ? Chameis complex Frimmel et al., 1996a[201].

DIKES: Gannakouriep, NE-N trending fanning swarm R 717±11 Ma Ransome, 1992[202] Reid et al., 1991[203] Gresse and Scheepers, 1993[204] Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5].


58 Franklin continental flood basalt(C) event Heaman et al., 1992[205] Ernst and Buchan, 1997a[5] Jefferson et al., 1994[206]

Location: N. Canada, W. Greenland

Plume head center: 75 N, 120 W (wrt Canada)

Size: 1,100,000 sq. km.

Age: 0.727-0.721 Ga

Rating: A (1dsv, 3)

NORTHERN CANADA

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Natkusiak Rainbird, 1993[207] Palmer et al., 1983[208].

DIKES: Franklin, E-S trending fanning swarm (U 723+4/-2 Ma Heaman et al., 1992[205]) Fahrig, 1987[209].

SILLS: Victoria Island (Minto inlier) (Ub 723 Ma Heaman et al., 1992[205]),Fahrig, 1987[209]; Coronation sills (Ub 723 Ma Heaman et al., 1992[205]) Robertson and Baragar, 1972[210]; Brock inlier Park, 1981a[210a].

LAYERED INTRUSION: ? Darnley Bay intrusion based on gravity anomaly could be correlated with the Franklin event Heaman et al., 1992[205] or the Mackenzie event (event 107).

WEST GREENLAND

DIKES: Thule (Greenland), ESE trending, K ca. 730-640 Ma Dawes and Rex, 1986[211] Nielsen, 1987[34].

COMMENT: Linkage between Franklin and Thule dikes has been long assumed Nielsen, 1990[212].


59 Port Nolloth continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: SW. Africa (Gariep belt)

Age: 0.74 Ga

Rating: C (8)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: lower Port Nolloth Group Frimmel et al., 1996a[201] (p. 502-503 in Goodwin, 1991[180] (Uz 741±6 Ma on felsic volcanic Frimmel et al., 1996b[213]).

COMMENT: Bimodal (predominately felsic) volcanism deposited in continental rift graben Frimmel et al., 1996a[201] Frimmel et al., 1996b[213] Frimmel and Frank, 1998[214]. The felsic volcanism associated with rifting in both the Gariep and Damara belts is statistically the same age between 740 and 750 Ma Frimmel et al., 1996b[213].


60 Muggamurra continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: W. Australia (Yilgarn craton)

Size: 140,000 sq. km.

Age: 0.75-0.55 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Muggamurra, WSW-SW arcuate swarm, 750-550 Ma Wingate and Giddings, 2000[215] Geological Survey of Western Australia, 1990[164].

COMMENT: The age dates quoted in Geological Survey of Western Australia, 1990[164] for the Muggamurra dikes are based on those dikes in the Northampton complex. Since the Northampton dikes are now considered to belong to the Mundine Well swarm Wingate and Giddings, 2000[215], then the Muggamurra dikes remain undated. Note, that in Wingate and Giddings, 2000[215] the Muggamurra and Mundine Well swarms (event 61) crosscut, but in Geological Survey of Western Australia, 1990[164] they do not.


61 Mundine Well continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: NW. Australia (Pilbara, Yilgarn cratons)

Size: 180,000 sq. km.

Age: 0.758-0.752 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Mundine Well (includes Northampton dikes), NNE-ENE arcuate swarm, Uz 755±3 Ma Wingate and Giddings, 2000[215]; Hamersley basin-2, ENE trending (1000-570 Ma) Parker et al., 1987[216] Boyd and Tucker, 1990[126].

COMMENT: See comment in Muggamurra event (event 60).


62 Ogcheon event

Location: Korea

Size: 180,000 sq. km.

Age: 0.758-0.752 Ga

Rating: C (8)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Lee et al., 1998[217]: Munjuri in Ogcheon belt (Uz 755.8±1.3 Ma Lee et al., 1998[217]); Samgot unit of Imjingang Belt, S 824±143 Ma Ree et al., 1996[218]; Gubongsan Group of Gyeonggi massif, (S 852±48 Ma, Kwon et al. unpub data in Lee et al., 1998[217]).

COMMENT: Bimodal volcanic rocks. Geochemistry suggests a continental-rift environment Lee et al., 1998[217].


63 Gunbarrel (Western North America) continental flood basalt(C) event Park et al., 1995[219] LeCheminant et al., 1996[220]

Location: W. Canada, W. USA

Plume head center: 50 N, 130 W

Size: 200,000 sq. km.

Age: 0.78 Ga

Rating: A (3)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Little Dal Dudás and Lustwerk, 1997[220a].

DIKES: Gunbarrel N-ESE fanning swarm Park et al., 1995[219]: (U 779±2 Ma LeCheminant and Heaman, 1994[221], U 785±8 Ma; U 782+/-8 Ma (Harlan & Premo in Park et al., 1995[219]) (includes Mackenzie Mountains (Tsezotene), N trending; Hottah sheets, NE trending; Wyoming, ESE trending.

SILLS: Mackenzie Mountains (Tsezotene) Park, 1981b[222] Park et al., 1989[223]; Wolf Creek, A 776±5 Harlan et al., 1997[223a].

COMMENT: Perhaps same as event 77.


64 Boucaut event

Location: SC. Australia

Age: 0.78 Ga

Rating: C (8)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Boucaut (Beaucaut) volcanic rocks Uz 777±7 Ma (Fanning, personal communication in Preiss, 2000[224]).

COMMENT: May record onset of Torrensian rifting Preiss, 2000[224]


65 El Graara event

Location: NW. Africa (Anti-Atlas domain)

Age: 0.80 Ga

Rating: C (8)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: El Graara ophiolite (p. 529-530 in Goodwin, 1991[180]) Leblanc and Lancelot, 1980[225].

INTRUSIONS: El Graara 787±10 Ma Goodwin, 1991[180] Leblanc and Lancelot, 1980[225]; east margin of West African craton (p. 530 in Goodwin, 1991[180]).

COMMENT: Rifting along the east margin of the West African craton occurred at ca. 800 Ma (p. 530 in Goodwin, 1991[180]).


66 Willouran-Gairdner continental flood basalt(C) event Crawford and Hilyard, 1990[226] Wingate et al., 1998[171] Zhao et al., 1994[227]

Location: SC. Australia

Size: 210,000 sq. km. Wingate et al., 1998[171]

Age: 0.83 Ga

Rating: A (1vds)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Wingate et al., 1998[171]; Wooltana volcanic rocks; Beda volcanic rocks; Bitter Springs volcanic rocks.

DIKES: Wingate et al., 1998[171]; Gairdner, NW-WNW trending arcuate swarm (Ub 827±6 Ma Wingate et al., 1998[171]); Amata, WNW-NW trending, (Ub 824±4 Ma S-S. Sun, unpub. data cited on p. 128 in Glikson et al., 1996[228]) Zhao and McCulloch, 1993[229]; Little Broken Hill NW trending; Cook, NW trending Boyd and Tucker, 1990[126].

SILL-LIKE LAYERED INTRUSION: Little Broken Hill gabbro pluton Uz 827±9 Ma Wingate et al., 1998[171].

COMMENT: Linked with South China event (event 67) Li et al., 1999[230].


67 South China continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: S. China (Yangtze craton of South China block)

Size: perhaps throughout Yangtze craton

Age: 0.83 Ga

Rating: B (5, 4s)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Li et al., 1999[230]; ?Lower Sinian (p. 454 in Goodwin, 1991[180].

DIKES: northern Guangxi, WNW trending, Uz 828±7 Ma Li et al., 1999[230]; Yengyangguan (825±25 Ma, H. Zhou & X.H. Li, work in progress, cited in Li et al., 1999[230]).

SILLS: northern Guangxi, WNW trending, Uz 828±7 Ma Li et al., 1999[230]; Yengyangguan (825±25 Ma, H. Zhou & X.H. Li, work in progress, cited in Li et al., 1999[230]).

COMMENT: Associated South China granites have same age as dikes and sills Li et al., 1999[230]. South China event linked with Willouran-Gairdner event (event 66) Li et al., 1999[230].


68 Bir El Khzaim continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: Morocco, Mauritania, Mali, Algeria

Size: 520,000 sq. km.

Age: 0.85 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Bir El Khzaim, N trending, ca. 850 Ma Lefort et al., 1994[231] Aifa et al., 1993[232]) Mali, 1980[233] Maroc, 1985[234] Algerie, 1958[235].


69 Bukoban continental flood basalt(C) event(s)

Location: Tanzania, Burundi, Cameroon (Congo Craton)

Size: 300,000 sq. km.

Age: 0.83-0.70 Ga

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Kabuye-Gagwe lavas in Tanzania K 815-800 Ma Meert et al., 1995[236]; Poli schist in northern Cameroon (Uz 830±12 Ma on Hosséreé Goldyna metarhyolite Toteu et al., 1987[237]).

DIKES: ? Tanzania SE-SW fanning swarm Halls et al., 1987[239]: Tanzania V, SE trending; Tanzania III, S trending; Tanzania IV, SW trending.

SILLS: Nyaganza A 709±2 Ma Deblond et al., 1999[238].

COMMENT: Alternatively, the dikes may belong to Bukoba-Kavumwe event (event 119).


70 Glen Doe event

Location: Scotland (Moine Supergroup)

Size: >2000 sq. km.

Age: 0.873 Ga

Rating: C (possibly 8)

DIKES: Glen Doe metamorphosed dikes (crosscut the metagabbros but are thought to be similar in age Millar, 1999[240]).

INTRUSIONS: Glen Doe metagabbros (Uz 873±6 Ma Millar, 1999[240]).

COMMENT: Glen Doe bodies widespread in Moine Group. The MORB-like chemistry in the dikes, and the lack of coeval compression features suggest emplacement of the Glen Doe bodies (gabbros and dikes) in an extensional setting Millar, 1999[240].


71 Makuti event

Location: Zimbabwe, Zambia (Zambezi belt)

Age: 0.88-0.74 Ga

Rating: C (8)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: VOLCANIC AND INTRUSIVE ROCKS: Munyanyiwa et al., 1997[241] Hanson et al., 1994[242]; In Zimbabwe: Makuti; Rushinga; Rushinga-Nyamapanda; Guruve; In Zambia: Nazingwe; Kafue (felsic rocks have Uz ages between 880 Ma and 740 Ma (unpublished data of M. Wardlaw cited in Hanson et al., 1994[242] Hanson et al., 1998[242a] Vinyu et al., 1999[242b] Dirks et al., 1999[242c].

COMMENT: Bimodal nature of volcanism and abundance of peralkline felsic rocks suggest a continental rift setting Munyanyiwa et al., 1997[241].


72 Southern PRT (late Proterozoic rift-related tholeiitic) continental flood basalt(C) event(s)

Location: E. USA

Size: in Appalachian basement inliers over distance of 700 km

Age: 0.9-0.5 Ga

Rating: B (5)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Mount Rogers formation (Crossnore Complex), Uz 758±12 Ma Brewer and Thomas, 1998[182].

DIKES: Southern PRT (Proterozoic rift-related tholeiite), NNE-ENE trending Goldberg and Butler, 1990[243] includes: Hudson Highlands, Reading Prong, Avondale, Honeybrook, Skyline, & Bakersville (R 734± 26 Ma Goldberg et al., 1986[244]).


73 Arabian-Nubian Shield oceanic flood basalt(O) event

Location: NE. Africa & Middle East (Arabian-Nubian Shield)

Age: 0.90-0.87 Ga

Rating: B (4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Stein and Goldstein, 1996[245] Kerr et al., 2000[80].


74 Araçuai continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: Brazil (São Francisco Craton)

Age: 0.91 Ga

Rating: C (8)

DIKES: Uhlein et al., 1998[246] Dossin et al., 1993[247].

SILLS: Uhlein et al., 1998[246] Dossin et al., 1993[247].

STOCKS: Uhlein et al., 1998[246] Dossin et al., 1993[247].

COMMENT: Uz 906±2 Ma Machado et al., 1989[248] age for mafic dike, sill, or stock. Associated with Araçuai rift. Is there a link with event 87 (p. 270-271 in Pedrosa-Soares and Wiedermann-Leonardos, 2000[248a])?


75 Blekinge-Dalarna continental flood basalt(C) event

Location: SW. Norway (Fennoscandian Shield)

Size: 90,000 sq. km. (for Blekinge-Dalarna dikes)

Age: 0.93 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Blekinge-Dalarna NNW-NNE arcuate swarm, S ca. 930 Ma Johansson and Johansson, 1990[249]; (S,U 960-925 Ma Möller, 1998[250] based on Sm-Nd data in Johansson and Johansson, 1990[249] & unpublished U-Pb baddeleyite data by U. Söderlund).

LAYERED INTRUSION: ? Bjerkreim-Sokndal layered intrusion Wilson et al., 1996[251] (?<930; >920 Ma Schärer et al., 1996[252]?). Similar age as Rogaland anorthosite massif (includes Egersund-Ogna, Håland?Helleren, and Åna Sira intrusions) U 931±2 Ma Schärer et al., 1996[252].


76 Lower Katangan continental flood basalt(C) event(s)

Location: Central Africa (Congo Craton)

Size: 140,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.0-0.7 Ga

Rating: C (possibly 4v)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Roan (lower Katangan), Mbuju Mayi (K 948±20 Ma); Zadinian in Zaire; Mayumbian in Zaire; Sansikwa Group ca. 970 Ma (p. 515 in Goodwin, 1991[180]).

COMMENT: Based on study of Zadinian, Franssen and André, 1988[253] proposed that the West Congo belt evolved from intracratonic marginal basin formed by asthenospheric upwelling [mantle plume] that was subsequently deformed in response to collision (p. 515 in Goodwin, 1991[180]).


77 Windermere event

Location: W. Canada, W. USA

Age: ca. 1.0-0.8 Ga

Rating: C (possibly 8)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: (p. 481-486 in Goodwin, 1991[180]): Irene; Leola & Huckleberry (S 762±44 Devlin et al., 1988[253a]).

COMMENT: Both rift and stable-platform settings have been proposed (p. 481 in Goodwin, 1991[180]). Perhaps same as event 63.


78 Hagar-Tokar oceanic flood basalt(O) event

Location: Eritrea, Sudan (S. Nubian Shield)

Age: Neoproterozoic

Rating: B (4vd)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: Hagar-Tokar metabasalts, Neoproterozoic Teklay et al., 1999[254].

DIKES: Sudan, E trending Vail, 1978[255].


79 Mutare event

Location: Zimbabwe

Size: 20,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.0-0.6 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Mutare, SSE-SE trending Wilson et al., 1987[256].


80 Trans-Yilgarn continental flood basalt(C) event(s)

Location: W. Australia (Yilgarn Craton)

Size: 600,000 sq. km.

Age: 1.0-0.6 Ga

Rating: B (5)

DIKES: Trans-Yilgarn, NE trending 1000-570 Ma Myers and Hocking, 1998[257] Parker et al., 1987[216] Isles and Cooke, 1990[258] Boyd and Tucker, 1990[126].


81 Baikal area events

Location: E. Russia (Baikal fold belt)

Age: 1.0-0.7 Ga

Rating: C (9i)

VOLCANIC ROCKS: 1000-800 Ma Ryzk et al., 1999[259].

DIKES: ?Sharyzhalgai block, N-NW trending Sklyarov et al., 1999[260].

LAYERED INTRUSIONS: Dovirensky (Ioko-Dovirensky, Dovyren) (S 673±22 Ma, S 707±40 Ma Amelin et al., 1996[261]) R 739±55 Ma Kislov et al., 1989[262], Chaisky, Gasan-Dyakitsky, Nyurundukansky, Kurlinsky, Tonkiy Mys, and Kivelyevsky intrusions Papunen et al., 1992[263].